https://ehelix.pythonanywhere.com/init/default/index

For now, it uses 7 separate mutation rates that all come from different publications, but not all necessarily using differing methods to derive the rates. I will look to expand these as more substitution mutation rates become available.

Below I have run some quick verifications for 3 separate mutation rate sources:

- Poznick (2013) rates via Underhill (2014)
- Xue (2009) rates via Cruciani (2013)
- Scozzari (2013) rates for the same publication

__Poznick (2013) rates via Underhill (2014)__

The following is stated in Underhill (2014):

A consensus has not yet been reached on the rate at which Y-chromosome SNPs accumulate within this 9.99Mb sequence. Recent estimates include one SNP per: ~100 years,⁵⁸ 122 years,⁴ 151 years⁵ (deep sequencing reanalysis rate), and 162 years.⁵⁹ Using a rate of one SNP per 122 years, and based on an average branch length of 206 SNPs from the common ancestor of the 13 sequences, we estimate the bifurcation of R1 into R1a and R1b to have occurred ~25,100 ago (95% CI: 21,300–29,000). Using the 8 R1a lineages, with an average length of 48 SNPs accumulated since the common ancestor, we estimate the splintering of R1a-M417 to have occurred rather recently, B5800 years ago (95% CI: 4800–6800). The slowest mutation rate estimate would inflate these time estimates by one third, and the fastest would deflate them by 17%.Putting in the variables for the R1 node from above into the calculator,

We get an output of:

R1 - Underhill (2014) |

Similarliy for the R1a-M417 node , we get:

R1a-M417 - Underhill (2014) |