Saturday, August 18, 2012

Anuak YDNA

Low resolution Anuak YDNA from Naser Ansari Pour et. al,

I expect the BT*(xDE,KT) to be likely haplogroup B-M150 for the most part.

E1b1a7, is old nomenclature from 2010, with the defining SNP for the lineage being M191/P86, the newer nomenclature for this lineage is E1b1a1a1f1a. Similarly, A3b2 is an older nomenclature for the lineage defined by the SNP M13, the newer nomenclature is A1b1b2b.


  1. Some context from Wikipedia:

    "The Anuak , also known as the Anyuak, Agnwak and Anywaa, are a Nilotic ethnic group . . . primarily found in villages situated along the banks and rivers of southeastern South Sudan as well as southwestern Ethiopia, especially the Gambela Region. . . . They have lived in the area of the Upper Nile for hundreds of years and consider their land to be their tribal land. The Anuak are ethnically, culturally, linguistically, historically and religiously different from most other Ethiopians. . . . Unlike other Nilotic people in the region whose economy is centered on raising cattle, the Anuak are herdsmen and farmers. They are believed to have a common origin with their northern neighbors, the Luo and Shilluk. Also, they share a similar language with their neighbors to the south, the Acholi. . . . The Luo speaking people of Eastern Africa are found beyond the Sudan and Ethiopia in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and the Congo. Their language(s) and dialects belong to the broader cluster of Nilo-Saharan languages. [G]eography has separated Ethiopians into distinctive categories of "lowlanders", such as the Anuak and other indigenous groups in the area, as opposed to the "highlanders" who comprise the vast majority of the population of Ethiopia, such as Amharas, Oromos, Tigrayans, etc. . . the Anuak and others, who live in the lowlands of Gambela are also distinguished by the [dark] colour of their skin[.]"

    Their Y-DNA profile can be compared with the Y-DNA profiles of Nilotic people generally. Nilotic populations tend to be heavy in Y-DNA A3b2, in Y-DNA hapologroup B, and in Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1b (which some researchers hypothesize flows from introgression of Cushitic men into the population). The Alur people who speak a Nilotic language have anomalous Y-DNA haplogroup E2. Thus, the high levels of E1b1a7 as opposed to the E1b1b that is characteristic of Nilotic populations is notable, while the high levels of A3b2 and BT* seen in the Anuak are fairly typical of Nilotic populations. The Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1a7 seen in the Anuak is characteristic of Central Africa and adjacent portions of West Africa and is also associated strongly with Bantu expansion, but it is is rare in far Western West Africa, North Africa and East Africa generally, and in Ethiopia and Southern Sudan in particular.

    In this context, ad given the distinctiveness of the Anuak as farmers, unlike other Nilotic populations, the E1b1a7 Y-DNA looks like a Bantu substrate at the fringe of historic East African Bantu territory that had a Nilotic superstrate, consisting of the A3b2, the BT* and probably some of the E* imposed upon it afterwards. This, in turn, means that Anuak ethnogenesis probably post-dates Bantu expansion and can probably be linked to some historic, or almost historic era Nilotic expansion.

    1. I also found the E1b1a1a1f1a found in the Anuak interesting, since the bantu expansion is not thought to have occured that far north traditionally, however I am wondering if this E1b1a lineage found in the Anuak is exaggerated by drift since in my genome-wide analysis of the 18 Anuak samples I had available, the Anuak seem very similar in profile to the Southern Sudanese, with about the same amount of 'West African' affinity, yet we know that South Sudanese groups like the Dinka, Shiluk or nuer have very little (if any) E1b1a....